Category Archives: Wrist Strap and Footwear Testers
Vanilla Electronics Ltd provide supply chain, kitting, manufacturing and logistics services to technology companies worldwide. A flexible and professional approach helping OEM’s seamlessly transition from design and prototyping, through to final box build, test, then direct end customer order fulfilment and reverse logistics.
In 2014, following another year of growth, Vanilla had the need to expand its manufacturing area and enhance all stores, picking and kitting areas. In addition, the construction of a new 1,500 sq ft cleanroom was required.
Vanilla’s ESD Protected Area (EPA)
As part of the £500k expansion project, Vanilla were looking to install an access control system for their ESD Protected Area (EPA) – the aim was three-fold:
- Verify the functionality of an operator’s wrist strap and footwear.
- Log the test results electronically.
- Control access to the EPA.
Vanilla looked at different solutions, compared features and benefits of available systems and attended various demonstrations and presentations.
In the end, Vanilla decided to install the SmarLog V5™ which is designed for fast, frequent and accurate testing of ESD personnel grounding items. Its unique design embeds an ESD tester, time clock, keypad, barcode scanner, Ethernet module and optional proximity badge reader into a compact stainless steel enclosure. The included relay terminal can be used to promote access control for passed tests.
Dan Croft, Managing Director at Vanilla Electronics, explains the decision: “The Smartlog’s capabilities were very impressive and we decided to install two systems: one at the entry to our kitting and picking area and another to the manufacturing area.” Both units were connected to a door entry system which allows Vanilla to control access to these areas: “Employees and visitors are unable to enter our EPA without successfully passing the necessary footwear and wrist strap tests.”
By touching the solid-state switch, the SmartLog V5™ independently tests the resistance path limits of the worn wrist strap and both worn ESD footwear in less than 2 seconds. It may also test a worn ESD garment if it is used as part of personnel grounding path. Test results are then electronically stored in the SmartLog V5™ and easily downloaded to a PC for logging records and evaluation (using Team5 software).
Paperless data can enhance operator accountability, immediately identifying problems while reducing logging and auditing costs. Operator identification can be accomplished using the keypad, scanning a barcode badge or waving a proximity badge (verify compatibility with the factory).
The SmartLog V5™ can test either single or dual-wire wrist straps and its split footplate design provides individual footwear testing all in a single test. With the use of TEAM5 Software, the SmartLog V5™ can be programmed to assign unique test requirements to personnel. An individual can be required to test either wrist strap only, footwear only or a combination of the two.
If a resistance path is below or exceeds the set limits, the SmartLog will indicate failure via audio and visual alarms. The included relay terminal allows access control for passed tests.
The SmartLog V5™ can also be networked to a company’s Intranet using its embedded Ethernet module.
After installation, Vanilla very easily assigned each user their own unique Barcode IDs and enabled automatic recording of both wrist and footwear test results. They then set the test frequency for each operator. The Team5 software automatically sends an email to line managers should any individual miss their scheduled test. “As well as passed results, the system also logs failures. This allows us to monitor wear and tear of ESD personnel grounding items and replace any that produce common failures.”
The Team5 software also allows Vanilla to quickly and efficiently produce accurate reports proving that each member of staff has met their ESD test requirements. Vanilla can align test data with their other systems such as pick and build information and environmental data including temperature and humidity. “The SmartLog system offers our customers full traceability throughout the process.”
Vanilla have recently arranged for the installation of the successor of the Smart V5™, the SmartLog Pro™, at one of their manufacturing facilities in Wiltshire – a true testament to the capabilities of SmartLogs. “They protect the EPAs much more effectively than a traditional manual system and really look the part during customer visits!”.
The all new SmartLog Pro™
The all new SmartLog Pro™ features a touch-screen display fulfilling two functions:
- Allows keypad entry and
- Visual colour-coded display of results.
We already know that in an ESD Protected Area (EPA) all surfaces, objects, people and ESD Sensitive Devices (ESDs) are kept at the same potential which is achieved by using ‘groundable’ materials that are then linked to ground. We have also learnt that the most common personnel grounding device to ground people to ground are wrist straps. People who are moving around should instead wear ESD footwear. So how do you know if your wrist straps and ESD footwear are working properly? Excellent question! And one we’ll answer with today’s post so let’s jump right in!
1. Purpose of Personnel Grounding Testers
Wrist Straps and ESD footwear should be part of your Verification Plan. Each component in an EPA plays a vital part in the fight against electrostatic discharge (ESD). If just one component is not performing correctly, you could damage your ESD sensitive devices potentially costing your company thousands of pounds. The problem with wrist straps and ESD footwear is that you can’t always see the damage. Just by looking at the items you would not know if they still provide sufficient protection. That’s where personnel testers provide feedback. They verify the functionality of an operator’s wrist strap and/or footwear and can determine if a person’s wrist strap and/or footwear function correctly.
Your Personnel Grounding Checklist
Your Personnel Grounding Checklist:
- Both wrist straps and footwear need to be tested at least daily before handling ESD sensitive devices and should be worn while checking.
- Verify your personnel grounding system using a wrist strap and/or footwear tester.
- Remember that a record of each test should be kept for quality control purposes.
- ONLY handle ESD sensitive components if your wrist strap and/or footwear pass(es) the test.
2. Types of Personnel Grounding Testers
Broadly speaking, personnel grounding testers can be purchased in two configurations:
- Wrist strap tester and
- Wrist strap and footwear tester.
As wrist straps are the most commonly used personnel grounding device to ground operators, you will find a lot of testers on the market that check wrist straps only.
As the name suggests, combined wrist strap and footwear testers will verify your wrist straps AND footwear.
In addition to WHAT they test, you will also be faced with a wide range of devices differing in HOW they test. Below you will find a (by no means complete) list of options:
- Continuous and split footplate: You will find testers with a continuous footplate which require each foot to be tested separately one after the other. Dual-footplate or independent footwear testers feature a split footplate which allows the unit to verify both feet independently at the same time. This can be a huge time-saver if you have a number of operators in your company who are required to check their personnel grounding devices.
- Portable, wall-mountable and fitted testers: Portable battery-powered (predominantly) wrist strap testers are perfect for small labs or for supervisors to spot-check workers and ensure compliance. Wall-mountable units are generally supplied with a wall plate which attaches to a wall; the tester is then mounted on to the wall plate. Some personal grounding devices are accompanied by a stand (and built-in footplate) which allow for a more freely positioning of the unit within a room.
- Relay terminal: A few testers on the market are fitted with a relay terminal that can be integrated with electronic door locks, turnstiles, lights, buzzers, etc. This can be of advantage if companies only want to allow personnel in an EPA that have passed their wrist strap and/or footwear test.
- Data acquisition: A growing number of personnel grounding devices allow for test activity data to be logged in a database. The units link to a computer which records operator identification, test results, resistance measurements, time and more. Paperless data can enhance operator accountability, immediately identifying problems while reducing manual logging and auditing costs.
Example of a Data Acquisition Tester – more information
3. Operation of Personnel Grounding Testers
Wrist strap testing:
If you are not using a continuous or a constant monitor, a wrist strap should be tested while being worn at least daily. This quick check can determine that no break in the path-to-ground has occurred. Wrist straps should be worn while they are tested. This provides the best way to test all three components: the wrist band, the ground cord (including the resistor) and the interface with the operator’s skin.
“Wrist straps should be tested periodically. The frequency of testing, however, is driven by the amount of usage, wear and ESD risk exposure that can occur between tests. For example, what is the quantity of product handled between test periods? Typical test programs recommend that wrist straps that are used daily should be tested daily. However, if the products that are being produced are of such value that a guarantee of a continuous, reliable ground is needed then continuous monitoring should be considered or even required.” (CLC TR 61340-5-2 User guide Wrist Strap clause 22.214.171.124.4 Test frequency)
“The operator shall wear the wrist strap in the normal position and plug the free end of the cord into the test apparatus. The hand contact plate shall be pressed to verify that the wrist strap system resistance is within acceptable parameters. The test apparatus can be an integrated, commercially available tester or other Instrumentation that is capable of measuring resistance from 5,0 x 104 ohms to at least 1,0 x 108 ohms. The tester open-circuit voltage is typically between 9 V d.c. and 100 V d.c.” (EN 61340-5-1 Annex A Test method A.1 Measurement method for wrist strap testing).
Example of a Wrist Strap Tester – more information
If the wrist strap tester outputs a FAIL test result, stop working and test the wrist band and cord individually to find out which item is damaged. Replace the bad component and repeat the test. Obtain a PASS test result before beginning work. For more information on troubleshooting failed wrist straps, check this post.
If using a flooring / footwear system as an alternative for standing or mobile workers, ESD footwear should be tested independently at least daily while being worn. Proper testing of foot grounders involves the verification of the individual foot grounder, the contact strip and the interface between the contact strip and the operator’s perspiration layer.
“The operator shall stand with one foot on the conductive footwear electrode. The hand contact plate shall be pressed to verify that the person footwear system resistance is within acceptable parameters. The test shall be repeated for the other foot. The test apparatus can be an integrated, commercially available tester or other instrumentation that is capable of measuring resistance from 5,0 x 104 ohms to at least 1,0 x 108 ohms. The tester open-circuit voltage is typically between 9 V d.c.and 100 V d.c.” (EN 61340-5-1 Annex A Test method A.2 Measurement procedure for footwear testing).
Example of a Wrist Strap and Footwear Tester – more information
If the footwear tester outputs a FAIL test result, stop working, and test the foot grounder and contact strip individually to find out which item is damaged. Replace the foot grounder. Obtain a PASS test result before beginning work.
Today’s post concludes our 2-part series on periodic verifcation. If you have missed the first part, you can catch-up on it here. As a reminder, it is recommended to regularely check all ESD Protected Area (EPA) products to ensure they are working correctly. After covering working surface matting and wrist straps in last week’s post, we’ll jump right in to discuss the remaining components in your EPA.
A flooring / footwear system is an alternative for personnel grounding for standing or mobile workers. Foot grounders quickly and effectively drain the static charges which collect on personnel during normal, everyday activities. Foot grounders should be used in conjunction with floor surfaces which have a surface resistance of less than 1010 ohms.
As ESD floors get dirty, their resistance increases. For optimum electrical performance, floor matting must be cleaned regularly using an ESD mat cleaner, such as Reztore™ Surface & Mat Cleaner. Do not use cleaners with silicone as silicone build-up will create an insulative film on the surface.
Dissipative floor finish can be used to reduce floor resistance. Periodic verification will identify how often the floor finish needs to be applied. As the layer(s) of dissipative floor finish wear, the resistance measurements will increase. So, after some amount of data collection, a cost effective maintenance schedule can be established.
Testing floor matting
Floor matting can be checked using a resistance meter. Surface resistance meters are designed to measure resistance point-to-point (Rp-p) or surface to ground (Rg) in accordance with EN 61340-5-1 Electrostatics and its test method IEC 61340-2-3.
ESD Shoes or Foot Grounders play an essential part in the flooring/footwear system. For more information on how to ground moving personnel effectively, check this post.
Before handling ESD sensitive devices, visually inspect your ESD footwear for any damage. Just like wrist straps, footwear should be checked while being worn using a wrist strap/footwear tester.
Checking foot grounders using 222567
Records of each test should be kept. Analysis and corrective action should take place when a footwear tester indicates a failure. Footwear needs to be checked daily.
Re-using shielding bags is acceptable as long as there is no damage to the shielding layer. Shielding bags with holes, tears or excessive wrinkles should be discarded.
Make sure your ESD shielding bags are un-damaged
It is up to the user to determine if a shielding bag is suitable for re-use or not. The testing of every bag before re-use is not practical. Many companies will discard the shielding bag once used and replace it with a new one. Others will use a system of labels to identify when the bag has gone through five handling cycles:
- Non-reusable labels are used that require the label be broken to open the bag.
- The bag is then resealed with a new label.
- When there are five broken labels, the bag is discarded.
The same principle applies to other ESD packaging, e.g. component shippers.
Ionisers are intended to neutralise static charges on insulators thereby reducing their potential to cause ESD damage. However, poorly maintained ionisers with dirty emitter pins and out-of-balance ionisers can put a charge on ungrounded items.
Remember to clean ioniser emitter pins and filters regularly. You can now even purchase ionisers that will alarm when emitter pins need to be cleaned or the ioniser is out of balance.
Checking ionisers using 50598
The EMIT Ionisation Test Kit 50598 allows the Digital Static Field Meter 50597 to be used to measure the offset voltage (balance) and charge decay of ionisation equipment. The Test Kit also includes a Charger used to place a ±1000V charge on the 50567 Conductive Plate, making it possible to measure the discharge times of air ionisation equipment per ANSI/ESD SP3.3 Periodic Verification of Air Ionizers.
Wrist Strap/Footwear and Resistance Testers etc.
So you check your wrist straps and/or footwear and bench and/or floor matting regularly. But have you remembered the testers themselves? What good do all the checks do, if the testers you use are out-of-spec and show you incorrect results?
Yearly calibration is recommended – many manufacturers offer a calibration service or alternatively you can purchase calibration units from them and perform the calibration yourself.
So there you have it – a list of the most commonly used products in your ESD Protected Area (EPA) that you should check on a regular basis.
Questions for you: Do you have a verfication plan in place? If so, how often do you check your ESD protection products?
Today we want to talk about a subject many users forget about when it comes to ESD protection: periodic verification.
Whilst many people understand the basic concepts of ESD and as a result insist on a properly equipped ESD Protected Area (EPA), they then forget all about it. They use the same products day-in, day-out, year after year, without knowing if their products are actually still working properly.
So today we want to look at the most common products in your EPA that you should be checking on a regular basis. And because there are quite a few product groups to discuss, we have split this post in 2 parts – we don’t want to scare you away with a never-ending blog post…
Why periodic verification?
Each component in an ESD protected area (EPA) plays a vital part in the fight against electrostatic discharge (ESD). If just one component is not performing correctly, you could damage your ESD sensitive devices potentially costing your company money. The problem with many ESD protection products (think wrist straps!) is that you can’t always see the damage. Just by looking at a coiled cord that has no visibly damage to the insulation you would not know if the conductor on the inside is damaged. That’s where periodic verification comes into play.
ESD protected area (EPA) products should be tested:
- Prior to installation to qualify product for listing in user’s ESD control plan.
- During initial installation.
- For periodic checks of installed products as part of IEC 61340-5-1 Edition 1 2007-08 clause 5.2.3 Compliance verification plan.
It’s #3 we will be focusing on in this 2-part series.
The purpose of ESD bench matting is to ensure that when charged conductors (conductive or dissipative) are placed upon the surface, a controlled discharge occurs and electrostatic charges are removed to ground. However, this only occurs if the ESD work surface is actually connected to ground. If the matting is out-of-spec, not grounded at all, the stud on the mat has become loose or the ground cord has become disconnected, charges cannot be removed.
Many companies use a daily checklist, which includes the operator having to verify that ground cords are firmly connected.
Remember to regularly clean your bench matting to maintain proper electrical function (e.g. Reztore Surface and Mat Cleaner). Do not use cleaners with silicone as silicone build-up will create an insulative film on the surface.
The company’s compliance verification plan should also include periodic checks of work surfaces measuring:
- Resistance Point-to-Point (Rp-p) and
- Resistance-to-ground (Rg).
Testing a working surface using 222643
Surface resistance testers can be used to perform these tests in accordance with EN 61340-5-1 Electrostatics and its test method IEC 61340-2-3; if these measurements are within acceptable ranges, the worksurface matting and its connections are good.
As discharges from people handling ESD sensitive devices cause significant ESD damage, the wrist strap is considered the first line of ESD control.
Before handling ESD sensitive items, you should visually inspect the wrist strap to see if there are any breakages etc. The wrist strap should then be tested while worn using a wrist strap tester. This ensures all three components are checked: the wrist band, the ground cord (including resistor) and the interface with the wearer’s skin. Records of each test should be kept. Wiggling the resistor strain relief portion of the coil cord during the test will help identify failures sooner. Analysis and corrective action should take place when a wrist strap tester indicates a failure.
Checking wrist straps using 222566
It is recommended that wrist straps are checked at least daily. An even better solution to daily wrist strap checks is the use of continuous monitors. They will alarm if the person or work surface is not properly grounded.
A note on worksurface matting and wrist straps: if you are using earth bonding points, earth bonding bars etc. to ground the operator and/or bench matting, remember to inspect and test those regularly as well (every 6 months for example).
Make sure you read the follow-up post here.
The patented* SmartLog V5™ system is designed for fast, frequent and accurate testing of ESD personnel grounding items. The SmartLog V5™ records ESD test data and exports it to a central PC or server in real-time where it can be managed and reported using TEAM5 Software.
- Single-wire and Dual-wire Wrist Strap Compatible
- Embedded CCD Barcode Scanner
- Ethernet Communication
- Adjustable Resistance Limits
- Programmable Test Requirements
- Compatible with Proximity Readers
- Embedded relay terminal for use with electronic
TEAM5 is the most powerful and accurate ESD Test Acquisition Software on the market. Use TEAM5 to automate and manage the ESD test data collected by the SmartLog V5™.
Click here to learn more.
|50762||Smartlog V5™, Europe, w/o Software||£2,294.72|
|50763||SmartLog V5™, Euro, 10MM Adapter, w/o Software||£2,294.72|
|50764||Reader Only, SmartLog V5™, HID ProxPoint Plus||£ 370.28|
|50765||Reader Only, SmartLog V5™, HID iClass||£ 383.04|
|50491||TEAM5 Enterprise Software with 1 Year Service||£3,886.16|
|50493||TEAM5 Software with 1 Year Service||£ 623.36|
“Compliance verification records shall be established and maintained to provide evidence of conformity to the technical requirements. The test equipment selected shall be capable of making the measurements defined in the compliance verification plan.” [EN 61340-5-1 Edition 1.0 2007-08 clause 5.2.3 Compliance verification plan]